Culture 

Philippe d’Iribarne, in Dictionnaire du travail (Sous la direction de Antoine Bevort, Annette Jobert, Michel Lallement, Arnaud Mias), PUF, 2012

Two streams of research have long addressed the role that cultural factors play in the functioning of companies, labour productivity and business efficiency. One of these streams looks at the impacts of national cultures and seeks to identify cultures that are more or less conducive to this efficiency. The other stream, on the contrary, looks at corporate cultures and seeks to understand how it is possible, by acting on the latter, to develop co-operative ways of functioning. There are few bridges between these two streams. However, research conducted in recent decades has demonstrated that there is a great interest in combining these two approaches. In many countries, the ways in which companies most commonly function are marked by a low level of mutual trust and a poor quality of cooperation. However, this is due to the fact that most companies do not take sufficient advantage of the culture’s potentialities.

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