An interdisciplinary approach

In order to analyse the way in which the diversity of cultures has an influence on the forms that modernity takes in different societies (and in particular the functioning of organisations), it is necessary to resort to a whole set of disciplines. Taking into account the interplay among actors requires a sociological approach, particularly, concerning the analysis of working relationships, the sociology of organisations and the sociology of work. The analysis of the mental universes within which actors give meaning to what they experience and consequently guide their action, whether it be their daily behaviour or the construction of institutions, involves an ethnological approach. The study of the practices through which cultures take shape in the life of organisations involves management. The identification of the diversity of conceptions of ethics around the world is linked to moral philosophy and that of the diversity of the main conceptions of life in society, which are specific to each culture, is linked to political philosophy. The methods used to decipher cultures on the basis of an analysis of language are connected with linguistics.
An interdisciplinary approach is therefore necessary. The reason why it is generally not adopted stems from the disciplinary division of social sciences, as it stands today, which is based on the unrealistic view that modern societies have of themselves. They imagine that they have attained a relationship with the world characterised by the existence of various spheres of economic, political and social rationality, each of which is the subject of an appropriate discipline, whereas in fact, all spheres of human action are characterised by a cultural embeddedness.


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