Modern societies are characterised by a plurality of values and ways of living – habitus. At the same time, one finds shared interpretive frameworks in them. Our approach to culture aims to account for this combination of unity and diversity. It leads to identifying two layers of a culture. The first layer corresponds to an opposition between positive images and negative images of ways of living and working together. The second corresponds to specific obsessive fears. Events and situations take on meaning in relation to these images and obsessive fears. This approach to culture moves away from a culturalist approach. It helps to understand the variety of corporate cultures, which are compatible with one same national culture, and to implement a management that uses the resources of each culture in a creative manner. Consequently, it is far better adapted to management than the traditional approach that uses attitude scales.